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Constitution

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan was adopted on December 8, 1992. On April 24, 2003 some amendments and addenda were introduced into it. It has been worked out based on the experience of developed countries. Thus, it appeared to have reflected the will and spirit of the people of this land, its public consciousness and level of culture. Constitution has imbibed fundamental ideas and principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Constitution of 1992 consists of 6 sections that include 26 chapters, and 128 articles. Its distinctive feature is that, that it has ensured the accountability of state bodies and authorities before public, that is, the priority of interests of each citizen has been legally maintained and further guaranteed.

The citizenship of the Republic of Uzbekistan, no matter how it is obtained, is fully equivalent for all. It allows for each person to fully participate in economic, political, legal, and cultural spheres of life in the country. Moreover, it obliges with some duties. Naturally, the state is obliged to protect the interests and freedoms of Uzbek citizens on its territory and abroad. The citizens of Uzbekistan regardless of their origin, race, nationality, and other, are equal. Constitution guarantees respect towards language, customs and traditions of all nationalities and peoples who are the citizens of Uzbekistan.

The structure of state power

People govern the state directly or through their elected representatives. Participation by people in the state administration is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and secured by special laws. In this regard, the referendum is an important political event. It is, in other words - voting by the people, is held on the most important issues of state and society, for instance, while adopting the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and other resolutions, or amending them. The way of holding referenda is defined by the Law of the Republic of Uzbekistan "On referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan" of November 18, 1991. Decisions, taken as a result of referenda bear the supreme legal power on the territory of Uzbekistan, and may be amended or canceled only by way of referenda. Elections to Kengashs (Councils) of people's deputies, national discussion of the most important issues, meetings of voters, early recall of people's deputies, and others are examples of how people may directly participate in the state administration. Certain laws also define rules of their holding.

People administer the state through deputies whom they elect to Oliy Majlis (national parliament) of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Kengashs (Councils) of people's deputies of viloyats (provinces), tumans (districts), and towns. Only those elected to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan can act on behalf of the people.

The main principle of the state power is state sovereignty. The state sovereignty means full independence in carrying out domestic and foreign policies. According to Article 15 of Constitution, the absolute supremacy of Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan are recognized. The state, its bodies, officials, public organizations, and citizens act in line with Constitution and laws.

The separation of the state power is another fundamental principle. According to Article 11, the state power in Uzbekistan is separated to legislative, executive and judicial branches. The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a legislative branch of power. It consists of two chambers - the Legislative chamber (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is a head of the state as well as executive branch of power. President stands as a guarantor of citizen's rights and liberties, Constitution, and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Judiciary is independent from legislative and executive branches, political parties, and other public organizations. It consists of Constitutional, Supreme, and Supreme Economic Courts of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme, and Economic Courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, elected for a five-year term, military and economic courts of provinces, city of Tashkent, districts and towns, appointed for the same term.

On its state structure, the Republic of Uzbekistan is a unitary state. The Article 70, the Section IV of Constitution on the administrative-territorial division, stipulates that the sovereign Republic of Karakalpakstan is a part of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Article 71 provides that Republic of Karakalpakstan has its own Constitution. The laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan are binding on the entire territory of the Republic of Karakalpakstan (Article 72). The relations between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan are regulated with treaties and agreements reached within the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

 

Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan

PREAMBLE

The people of Uzbekistan,

solemnly declaring their adherence to human rights and principles of state sovereignty,
aware of their ultimate responsibility to the present and the future generations,
relying on historical experience in the development of Uzbek statehood,
affirming their commitment to the ideals of democracy and social justice,
recognizing priority of the generally accepted norms of the international law,
aspiring to a worthy life for the citizens of the Republic,
setting forth the task of creating a humane and democratic rule of law,
aiming to ensure civil peace and national accord, represented by their plenipotentiary deputies adopt the present Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

PART ONE
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

Chapter 1. State Sovereignty

Article 1.
Uzbekistan is a sovereign democratic republic. Both names of the state - the Republic of Uzbekistan and Uzbekistan - shall be equivalent.

Article 2.
The state shall express the will of the people and serve their interests. State bodies and officials shall be accountable to the society and the citizens.

Article 3.
The Republic of Uzbekistan shall determine its national-state and administrative-territorial structure, its structure of state authority and administration, and shall pursue independent home and foreign policies.
The state frontier and the territory of Uzbekistan shall be inviolable and indivisible.

Article 4.
The state language of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be Uzbek. The Republic of Uzbekistan shall ensure a respectful attitude toward the languages, customs and traditions of all nationalities and ethnic groups living on its territory, and create the conditions necessary for their development.

Article 5.
The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have its state symbols - the flag, the emblem, and the anthem-sanctioned by the law.

Article 6.
The capital of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the city of Tashkent.

Chapter 2. Democracy

Article 7.
The people are the sole source of state power. State power in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be exercised in the interests of the people and solely by the bodies empowered therefore by the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the laws passed on its basis. Any seizure of powers belonging to state authority, suspension or termination of activity of the bodies of state authority contrary to the procedure prescribed by the Constitution, as well as the formation of any new or parallel bodies of state authority shall be regarded as unconstitutional and punishable by law.

Article 8.
All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan, regardless of their nationality, constitute the people of Uzbekistan.

Article 9.
Major matters of public and state life shall be submitted for a nation-wide discussion and put to a direct vote of the people (a referendum). The procedure for holding referendums shall be specified by law.

Article 10.
The Oily Majlis (Supreme Assembly) and President of the Republic, elected by the people, shall have the exclusive right to act on behalf of the people. No section of society, political party, public association, movement or individual shall have the right to act on behalf of the people of Uzbekistan.

Article 11.
The principle of the separation of power between the legislative, executive and judicial authorities shall underlie the system of state authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 12.
In the Republic of Uzbekistan, public life shall develop on the basis of a diversity of political institutions, ideologies and opinions. No ideology shall be granted the status of state ideology.

Article 13.
Democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall rest on the principles common to all mankind, according to which the ultimate value is the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights. Democratic rights and freedoms shall be protected by the Constitution and the laws.

Article 14.
The state shall function on the principles of social justice and legality in the interests of the people and society.

Chapter 3. Supremacy of the Constitution and the Law

Article 15.
The Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have absolute supremacy in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The state, its bodies, officials, public associations and citizens shall act in accordance with the Constitution and the laws.

Article 16.
None of the provisions of the present Constitution shall be interpreted in a way detrimental to the rights and interests of the Republic of Uzbekistan. None of the laws or normative legal acts shall run counter to the norms and principles established by the Constitution.

Chapter 4. Foreign Policy

Article 17.
The Republic of Uzbekistan shall have full rights in international relations. Its foreign policy shall be based on the principles of sovereign equality of the states, non-use of force or threat of its use, inviolability of frontiers, peaceful settlement of disputes, non-interference in the internal affairs of other states, and other universally recognized norms of international law.
The Republic may form alliances, join or withdraw from unions and other inter-state organizations proceeding from the ultimate interests of the state and the people, their well-being and security.

PART TWO
BASIC HUMAN AND CIVIL RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND DUTIES

Chapter 5. General Provisions

Article 18.
All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have equal rights and freedoms, and shall be equal before the law, without discrimination by sex, race, nationality, language, religion, social origin, convictions, individual and social status.
Any privileges may be granted solely by the law and shall conform to the principles of social justice.

Article 19.
Both citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the state shall be bound by mutual rights and mutual responsibility. Citizens’ rights and freedoms, established by the Constitution and the laws, shall be inalienable. No one shall have the power to deny a citizen his rights and freedoms, or to infringe on them except by the sentence of a court.

Article 20.
The exercise of rights and freedoms by a citizen shall not encroach on the lawful interests, rights and freedoms of other citizens, the state or society.

Chapter 6. Citizenship

Article 21.
In the Republic of Uzbekistan, uniform citizenship shall be established throughout its territory.
Citizenship in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be equal for all regardless of the grounds of its acquisition.
Every citizen of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The grounds and procedure for acquiring and forfeiting citizenship shall be defined by law.

Article 22.
The Republic of Uzbekistan shall guarantee legal protection to all its citizens both on the territory of the republic and abroad.

Article 23.
Foreign citizens and stateless persons, during their stay on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be guaranteed the rights and freedoms in accordance with the norms of international law.
They shall perform the duties established by the Constitution, laws, and international agreements signed by the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Chapter 7. Personal Rights and Freedoms

Article 24.
The right to exist is the inalienable right of every human being. Attempts on anyone’s life shall be regarded as the gravest crime.

Article 25.
Everyone shall have the right to freedom and inviolability of the person.
No one may be arrested or taken into custody except on lawful grounds.

Article 26.
No one may be adjudged guilty of a crime except by the sentence of a court and in conformity with the law. Such a person shall be guaranteed the right to legal defence during open court proceedings.
No one may be subject to torture, violence or any other cruel or humiliating treatment.
No one may be subject to any medical or scientific experiments without his consent.

Article 27.
Everyone shall be entitled to protection against encroachments on his honour, dignity, and interference in his private life, and shall be guaranteed inviolability of the home. No one may enter a home, carry out a search or an examination, or violate the privacy of correspondence and telephone conversations, except on lawful grounds and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

Article 28.
Any citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to freedom of movement on the territory of the Republic, as well as a free entry to and exit from it, except in the events specified by law.

Article 29.
Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of thought, speech and convictions. Everyone shall have the right to seek, obtain and disseminate any information, except that which is directed against the existing constitutional system and in some other instances specified by law. Freedom of opinion and its expression may be restricted by law if any state or other secret is involved.

Article 30.
All state bodies, public associations and officials in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall allow any citizen access to documents, resolutions and other materials, relating to their rights and interests.

Article 31.
Freedom of conscience is guaranteed to all. Everyone shall have the right to profess or not to profess any religion. Any compulsory imposition of religion shall be impermissible.

Chapter 8. Political Rights

Article 32.
All citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to participate in the management and administration of public and state affairs, both directly and through representation. They may exercise this right by way of self-government, referendums and democratic formation of state bodies.

Article 33.
All citizens shall have the right to engage in public life by holding rallies, meetings and demonstrations in accordance with the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The bodies of authority shall have the right to suspend or ban such undertakings exclusively on the grounds of security.

Article 34.
All citizens of the republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to form trade unions, political parties and any other public associations, and to participate in mass movements.
No one may infringe on the rights, freedoms and dignity of the individuals, constituting the minority opposition in political parties, public associations and mass movements, as well as in representative bodies of authority.

Article 35.
Everyone shall have the right, both individually and collectively, to submit applications and proposals, and to lodge complaints with competent state bodies, institutions and public representatives.
Such applications, proposals and complaints shall be considered in accordance with the procedure and within the time-limit specified by law.

Chapter 9. Economic and Social Rights

Article 36.
Everyone shall have the right to own property.
The privacy of bank deposits and the right to inheritance shall be guaranteed by law.

Article 37.
Everyone shall have the right to work, including the right to choose their occupation. Every citizen shall be entitled to fair conditions of labour and protection against unemployment in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.
Any forced labour shall be prohibited, except as punishment under the sentence of a court, or in some other Instances specified by law.

Article 38.
Citizens working on hire shall be entitled to a paid rest. The number of working hours and the duration of paid leave shall be specified by law.

Article 39.
Everyone shall have the right to social security in old age, in the event of disability and loss of the bread-winner as well as in some other cases specified by law.
Pensions, allowances and other kinds of welfare may not be lower than the officially fixed minimum subsistence wage.

Article 40.
Everyone shall have the right to receive skilled medical care.

Article 41.
Everyone shall have the right to education. The state shall guarantee free secondary education. Schooling shall be under state supervision.

Article 42.
Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of scientific research and engineering work, as well as the right to enjoy cultural benefits. The state shall promote the cultural, scientific and technical development of society.

Chapter 10. Guarantees of Human Rights and Freedoms

Article 43.
The state shall safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens proclaimed by the Constitution and laws.

Article 44.
Everyone shall be entitled to legally defend his rights and freedoms, and shall have the right to appeal any unlawful action of state bodies, officials and public associations.

Article 45.
The rights of minors, the disabled, and the elderly shall be protected by the state.

Article 46.
Women and men shall have equal rights.

Chapter 11. Duties of Citizens

Article 47.
All citizens shall perform the duties established by the Constitution.

Article 48.
All citizens shall be obliged to observe the Constitution and laws, and to respect the rights, freedoms, honour and dignity of others.

Article 49.
It is the duty of every citizen to protect the historical, spiritual and cultural heritage of the people of Uzbekistan.
Cultural monuments shall have protection by the state.

Article 50.
All citizens shall protect the environment. Article 51. All citizens shall be obliged to pay taxes and local fees established by law.

Article 52.
Defence of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the duty of every citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Citizens will be obliged to perform military or alternative service in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

PART THREE
SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL

Chapter 12. The Economic Foundation of Society

Article 53.
The economy of Uzbekistan, evolving towards market relations, is based on various forms of ownership. The state shall guarantee freedom of economic activity, entrepreneurship and labour with due regard for the priority of consumers’ rights, as well as equality and legal protection of all forms of ownership.
Private property, along with the other types of property, shall be inviolable and protected by the state. An owner may be deprived of his property solely in the cases and in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law.

Article 54.
An owner shall possess, use and dispose of his property. The use of any property must not be harmful to the ecological environment, nor shall it infringe on the rights and legally protected interests of citizens, juridical entities or the state.

Article 55.
The land, its minerals, fauna and flora, as well as other natural resources shall constitute the national wealth, and shall be rationally used and protected by the state.

Chapter 13. Public Associations

Article 56.
Trade unions, political parties, and scientific societies, as well as women’s, veterans’ and youth leagues, professional associations, mass movements and other organizations registered in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law, shall have the status of public associations in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 57.
The formation and functioning of political parties and public associations aiming to do the following shall be prohibited: changing the existing constitutional system by force; coming out against the sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of the Republic, as well as the constitutional rights and freedoms of its citizens; advocating war and social, national, racial and religious hostility, and encroaching on the health and morality of the people, as well as of any armed associations and political parties based on the national or religious principles.
All secret societies and associations shall be banned.

Article 58.
The state shall safeguard the rights and lawful interests of public associations and provide them with equal legal possibilities for participating in public life.
Interference by state bodies and officials in the activity of public associations, as well as interference by public associations in the activity of state bodies and officials is impermissible.

Article 59.
Trade unions shall express and protect the socio-economic rights and interests of the working people. Membership in trade unions is optional.

Article 60.
Political parties shall express the political will of various sections and groups of the population, and through their democratically elected representatives shall participate in the formation of state authority. Political parties shall submit public reports on their financial sources to the Oily Majlis or their plenipotentiary body in a prescribed manner.

Article 61.
Religious organizations and associations shall be separated from the state and equal before law. The state shall not interfere with the activity of religious associations.

Article 62.
Public associations may be dissolved or banned, or subject to restricted activity solely by the sentence of a court.

Chapter 14. Family

Article 63.
The family is the primary unit of society and shall have the right to state and societal protection.
Marriage shall be based on the willing consent and equality of both parties.

Article 64.
Parents shall be obliged to support and care for their children until the latter are of age.
The state and society shall support, care for and educate orphaned children, as well as children deprived of parental guardianship, and encourage charity in their favour.

Article 65.
All children shall be equal before the law regardless of their origin and the civic status of their parents.
Motherhood and childhood shall be protected by the state.

Article 66.
Able-bodied children who are of age shall be obliged to care for their parents.

Chapter 15. Mass Media

Article 67.
The mass media shall be free and act in accordance with the law. It shall bear responsibility for trustworthiness of information in a prescribed manner. Censorship is impermissible.

PART FOUR
ADMINISTRATIVE AND TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE AND STATE SYSTEM

Chapter 16. Administrative and Territorial Structure of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 68.
The Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of regions, districts, cities, towns, settlements, kishlaks and auls (villages) in Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan.

Article 69.
Any alteration of the boundaries of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions, the city of Tashkent, as well as the formation and annulment of regions, cities, towns and districts shall be sanctioned by the Oily Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Chapter 17. Republic of Karakalpakstan

Article 70.
The sovereign Republic of Karakalpakstan is part of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The sovereignty of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be protected by the republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 71.
The republic of Karakalpakstan shall have its own Constitution.
The Constitution of the Republic of Karakalpakstan must be in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 72.
The laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be binding on the territory of the Republic of Karakalpakstan.

Article 73.
The territory and boundaries of the Republic of Karakalpakstan may not be altered without the consent of Karakalpakstan. The republic of Karakalpakstan shall be independent in determining its administrative and territorial structure.

Article 74.
The Republic of Karakalpakstan shall have the right to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of a nation-wide referendum held by the people of Karakalpakstan.

Article 75.
Relationship between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan, within the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be regulated by treaties and agreements concluded by the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan. Any disputes between the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be settled by the way of reconciliation.

PART FIVE
ORGANIZATION OF STATE AUTHORITY

Chapter 18. Oily Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 76.
The supreme state representative body shall be the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan that exercises legislative power.
The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of two chambers — the Legislative Chamber (the lower chamber) and the Senate (the upper chamber).
The term of powers of the Legislative chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis  of the Republic of Uzbekistan — five years.

Article 77.
The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of one hundred twenty deputies elected by territorial constituencies on a multiparty basis.
The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be the chamber of territorial representation and consist of members of the Senate (senators).
Members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected in equal quantity — in six persons — from the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent by secret ballot at relevant joint sessions of deputies of Zhokarghy Kenes of the Republic of Karakalpakstan, representative bodies of state authority of regions, districts, cities and towns from among these deputies. Sixteen members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be appointed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among the most authoritative citizens with large practical experience and special merits in the sphere of science, art, literature, manufacture and other spheres of state and public activity.
A deputy of the Legislative Ñhamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as a member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, may be a citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan who has reached on the date of the elections twenty five years of age and permanently residing on the territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan not less than five years. Requirements for candidates to be a deputy shall be determined by law.
One and the same person may not be simultaneously a deputy of the Legislative Chamber and a member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 78.
The joint conducting of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include:
1) adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, introducing amendments;
2) adoption of the Constitutional laws and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, introducing amendments;
3) adoption of decision on holding a referendum of the Republic of Uzbekistan and designation the date of its holding;
4) determination of the guidelines of home and foreign policies of the Republic of Uzbekistan, and adoption of strategic state programmes;
5) determination of the structure and powers of the bodies of the legislative, executive and judicial authorities of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
6) admission of new state formations into the Republic of Uzbekistan and approval of decisions to secede from the Republic of Uzbekistan;
7) legislative regulation of customs, currency and credit systems;
8) approval of the state budget of the Republic of Uzbekistan submitted by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan and control over its execution;
9) determination of taxes and other compulsory payments;
10) legislative regulation of the administrative and territorial structure, and alteration of the boundaries of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
11) formation, annulment and renaming of districts, towns, cities and regions, and alteration of their boundaries;
12) institution of state awards and titles;
13) ratification of decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the formation and abolition of ministries, state committees and other bodies of state administration;
14) formation of the Central Election Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
15) consideration and approval, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of a nominee of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
16) election of an authorized person of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for human rights and his deputy;
17) consideration of report of the Accounting Chamber of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
18) ratification of decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on announcement of condition of war in case of attack on the Republic of Uzbekistan or necessity of implementation of contractual obligations on mutual defense from aggression;
19) ratification of decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on announcement of general and partial mobilization, introducing, prolongation and discontinuance of the state of emergency;
20) ratification and denouncement of international treaties;
21) exercising of other powers specifed by the present Constitution.
The matters on joint conducting by the chambers shall be considered, as a rule, first by the Legislative Chamber and then by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 79.
The exclusive powers of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include:
1) election of the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies, chairmen of committees and their deputies;
2) ruling of matters on deprivation of immunity a deputy of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan submitted by the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
3) adoption of decisions on matters relating to the organization of its activity and the internal schedule of the chamber;
4) adoption of resolutions on those or other matters in the sphere of political, social and economic life, as well as matters of home and foreign policies of the state.

Article 80.
The exclusive powers of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall include:
1) election of the Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies, chairmen of committees and their deputies;
2) election, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
3) election, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
4) election, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, of the Higher Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
5) appointment and relief of the Chairman of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Protection of Nature of his post upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
6) ratification of decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on appointment and relief of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies of their posts;
7) ratification of decrees of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on appointment and relief of the Chairman of the National Security Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan of his post;
8) appointment and relief of diplomatic and other representatives of the Republic of Uzbekistan to foreign states of their posts upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
9) appointment and relief of the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan of his post upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
10) upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan adoption of acts of amnesty;
11) upon the nomination of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan ruling of matters on deprivation of immunity a member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
12) hearing reports of the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Chairman of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Protection of Nature, the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
13) adoption of decisions on matters relating to the organization of its activity and the internal schedule of the chamber;
14) adoption of resolutions on those or other matters in the sphere of political, social and economic life, as well as matters of home and foreign policies of the state.

Article 81.
The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, after expiry of their terms of powers, shall continue their activity until the beginning of the work accordingly of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of new convocation.
The first sittings of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convoked by the Central Election Committee accordingly not later than in two months after the elections to the Legislative Chamber and not later than in one month after the formation of the Senate.
Sittings of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convoked during sessions. Sessions shall be convoked, as a rule, since the first working day of September till the last working day of June of the next year.
Sittings of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convoked as required, but not less often than three times a year.
Sittings of the chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be empowered if not less than half of the total number of all deputies, senators paticipiate in their work.
At adoption of the constitutional laws, presence of not less than two thirds of the total number of all deputies, senators shall be obligatory.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Prime Minister, members of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Chairmen of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Higher Economic Court, the Procurator-General of the Republic, the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank shall have the right to attend sittings of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as sittings of their bodies. The Chairman of the Senate shall have the right to attend sittings of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its bodies, the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber — sittings of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and its bodies.
The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall convoke separately.
The joint sittings of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be convoked upon taking the oath by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, making speeches by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan on major matters of social and economic life, home and foreign policies of the country, making speeches by heads of foreign states. As agreed by the chambers the joint sittings of the chambers may be convoked on other matters.

Article 82.
The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, on matterss relating to their conducting, shall adopt resolutions.
Resolutions of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be adopted by a majority of votes of the total number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber or members of the Senate except for cases stipulated by the present Constitution.

Article 83.
The Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall pass laws, decisions and other acts. Any law shall be adopted when it is passed by a majority of the total voting power of the deputies of the Oliy Majlis.
Promulgation of the laws and other normative acts shall be a compulsory condition for their enforcement.

Article 84.
The law shall come into effect when it is adopted by the Legislative Chamber, approved by the Senate, signed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and issued in the official publications in specified by law procedure.
The law, adopted by the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, not later than ten days from the date of adoption, shall be addressed to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The law, approved by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, within ten days, shall be addressed to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for signing and promulgation.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan, within thirty days, shall sign the law and promulgate it.
The law, rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, shall be returned to the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
In case of the second consideration of the rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan law and approval the law anew by the Legislative Chamber, by a majority in two thirds of votes of the total number of deputies, it shall be considered to be adopted by the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and addressed by the Legislative Chamber to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for signing and promulgation.
On the rejected by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan law the Legislative Chamber and the Senate, on a par with, may form from among deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate a conciliatory commission for overcoming the occured disagreements. At adoption by the chambers proposals of the conciliatory commission the law shall be subject to consideration in ordinary procedure.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to return the law with his objections to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
In case of approval of the law in the earlier adopted edition by a majority not less than two thirds of votes of the total number accordingly of deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the law shall be subject to signing by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan within fourteen days and promulgation.
Publication of  laws and other normative-legal acts shall be an obligatory condition for their application.

Article 85.
The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy  Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect from its composition the Speaker of the Legislative Chamber and his deputies.
The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies shall be elected by a majority of votes of the total number of deputies by secret ballot  for the term of powers of the Legislative Chamber.
The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be recalled before the appointed time by decision of the Legislative Chamber adopted by more than two thirds of votes of the total number of deputies of the Legislative Chamber by secret ballot.
The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall:
1) convoke sittings of the Legislative Chamber, preside at them;
2) exercise the general direction over a preliminary review of matters to be submitted for consideration by the Legislative Chamber;
3) coordinate the work of the committees and commissions of the Legislative Chamber;
4) organize the control over the implementation of  laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions of the Legislative Chamber;
5) direct the work on interparliamentary relations and the activity of the groups of the Legislative Chamber connected with the work of international parliamentary organizations;
6) represent the Legislative Chamber in interrelation with the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, other state bodies, foreign states, international and other organizations;
7) sign resolutions of the Legislative Chamber;
8) exercise other powers stipulated by the present Constitution and legislation.
The Speaker of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall issue ordinances.

Article 86.
The Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall elect from among its composition the Chairman of the Senate and his deputies. The Chairman of the   Senate shall be elected upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
One of the Deputies Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be a representative from the Republic of Karakalpakstan.
The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his Deputies shall be elected by a majority of votes of the total number of senators by secret ballot for the term of powers of the Senate.
The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be recalled before the appointed time by decision of the Senate adopted by more than two thirds of votes of the total number of senators by secret ballot.
The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall:
1) convoke sittings of the Senate, preside at them;
2) exercise the general direction over a preliminary review of matters to be submitted for consideration by the  Senate;
3) coordinate the work of the committees, commissions of the Senate;
4) organize the control over the implementation of  laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and resolutions of the Senate;
5) direct the work on  interparliamentary relations  and the activity of the groups of the Senate connected with the work of international parlia­mentary organizations;
6) represent the Senate in interrelation with the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, other state bodies, foreign states, international and other organizations;
7) sign resolutions of the Senate;
8) exercise other powers stipulated by the present Constitution and legislation.
The Chairman of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall issue ordinances.

Article 87.
The Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the term of its powers shall elect from among deputies of the Legislative Chamber the committees for draftig laws,  preliminary consideration and preparation of matters to be submitted to the  Legislative Chamber, control over the implementation of  laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and decisions to be adopted by the Legislative Chamber.
The Senate of the Oliy Majlis  of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the term of its powers shall elect from among  senators the committees for preliminary consideration and preparation of matters to be submitted to the Senate, control over the implementation of  laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan and decisions to be adopted by the Senate.
The Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, in case of necessity for the implementation of concrete tasks, shall organize commissions  from among  deputies, senators.

Article 88.
To deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan expences, connected with deputy or senator activities, shall be compensated in the established procedure.
Deputies of the Legislative Chamber and members of the Senate, working in the Senate on a permanent basis for the period of their powers, may not be engaged in other  paid activity except for research and pedagogical.
A deputy of the Legislative Chamber and a member of the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right of immunity. They may not be brought to criminal responsibility, arrested or subject to measures of administrative penalty imposed in the judicial order, without the consent accordingly of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate.

Chapter 19. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan

Article 89.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is the Head of the State and executive authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 90.
A citizen of the Republic of Uzbekistan not younger thirty five, being in full command of the state language and permanently residing on the territory of Uzbekistan for at least 10 years, immediately preceding the elections,may be elected the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. One and the same person may not be the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for more than two consecutive terms.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be elected by citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan on the basis of the universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot for the term of seven years. The procedure for electing the President shall be defined by law of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 91.
The President, during his term of office, may not hold any other paid post, serve as deputy of representative body, engage in commercial activity.
The President shall enjoy personal immunity and protection under law.

Article 92.
The President shall be regarded as having assumed office upon taking an  oath of the following content at sitting of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan: “I do solemnly swear to faithfully serve the people of Uzbekistan, to strictly follow  the Constitution and laws of the Republic, to guarantee the rights and freedoms of its citizens, and to conscientiously perform the duties vested on the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.”

Article 93.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall:
1) guarantee observance of rights and freedoms of citizens, the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
2) take necessary measures on the protection of sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of the Republic of Uzbekistan, implementation of decisions regarding its national-state structure;
3) represent the Republic of Uzbekistan within the country and in international relations;
4) conduct negotiations and sign treaties and agreements of  the Republic of Uzbekistan, ensure the observance of the negotiated by the Republic treaties, agreements  and the assumed by it obligations;
5) receive letters of credence and recall from diplomatic and other representatives accredited to him;
6) present to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan  nominees for appointment of diplomatic and other representatives of the Republic of Uzbekistan to foreign states;
7) present to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan annual reports on  major matters of social and economic life, home and foreign policies of the country;
8) form the office of executive authority and direct it; ensure interaction of the supreme bodies of  authority and administration of the Republic; form and abolish ministries, state committees and other bodies of state administration  with subsequent submission of decrees on these matters for approval by the chambers of   the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
9) represent to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan a nominee for the election on the post of the Chairman of the Senate;
10) represent for consideration and approval by the chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the  Republic of Uzbekistan a nominee of the Prime Minister of the  Republic of Uzbekistan and relieve him of his post;
11) approve, upon the nomination of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan, members of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan and relieve them of their posts;
12) appoint and relieve the Procurator-General of the Republic of Uzbekistan and his deputies of their posts with their subsequent  approval by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis  of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
13) represent to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan nominees on the posts of the Chairman and judges of the Constitutional Court, the Chairman and judges of the Supreme Court, the Chairman and judges of  the Higher Economic Court, the Chairman of the Board of the Central Bank of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Chairman of the State Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan for Protection of Nature;
14) appoint and relieve judges of regional, interdistrict, district, city, martial and economic courts of their posts;
15) appoint and relieve  khokims of regions and the city of Tashkent of their posts with their subsequent approval by relevant Kenghashes of people’s deputies. The President shall have the right to relieve, by his decision, khokims of districts and cities of their posts, should they violate the Constitution, laws or perform acts discrediting the honour and dignity of a khokim;
16) suspend and repeal acts passed by bodies of state administration, as well as  khokims;
17) sign and promulgate laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan; shall have the right to return a law, with his objections, to the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the second discussion and vote;
18) announce  condition of war in case of  attack on the Republic of Uzbekistan or in case of necessity of the implementation of contractual obligations on  mutual defense from aggression and within seventy two hours submit the adopted decision for approval by the chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
19) in exceptional cases (real outside threat, mass disturbances, major catastrophes, natural calamities, epidemics) in the interests of ensuring citizens’ security  introduce the state of emergency on the entire territory or in the particular localities of the Republic of Uzbekistan and within seventy two hours submit the adopted decision for approval by the chambers of  the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.  Conditions and the procedure for introducing the state of emergency shall be regulated by law;
20) serve as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan, appoint and relieve the supreme command of the Armed Forces of the post and confer the highest millitary ranks;
21) award orders, medals and certificates of honour of the Republic of Uzbekistan, confer qualification and honorary titles of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
22) rule on matters of citizenship of the Republic of Uzbekistan and granting political asylum;
23) put to the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan submission on adoption of acts of amnesty and effectuate pardoning of persons condemned by courts of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
24) form the National Security Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan, nominate  and relieve the Chairman of the National Security Service of his post with the subsequent submission of decrees on these matters for approval by the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan;
25) exercise other powers stipulated by the present Constitution and   laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The President shall not have the right to transfer exercising of his powers to state bodies or officials.

Article 94.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall issue decrees, resolutions and ordinances binding on the entire territory of the Republic on the basis of and for enforcement of the Constitution and laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 95.
The Legislative Chamber, the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may be dissolved, by the decision of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan adopted as agreed with the Constitutional Court of the  Republic of Uzbekistan, in case of insuperable disagreements within the Legislative Chamber or the Senate putting under threat their normal functioning or numerous adoption by them  decisions contradicting the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, as well as insuperable disagreements between the Legislative Chamber and the Senate putting under threat the normal functioning of the Oliy Majlis of the  Republic of Uzbekistan.
In case of dissolution of the Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the new elections shall be held within three months.
The  Legislative Chamber and the Senate of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan may not be dissolved during the state of emergency.

Article 96.
Should the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan fail to perform his duties due to poor health confirmed by a certificate of a State Medical Commission formed by joint decision of the chambers, an extraordinary joint sitting of the chambers of the Oliy Majlis shall be held within ten days. This sitting shall elect an acting President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from among its deputies, senators for the term up to three months. In this case the general elections of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be held within three months.

Article 97.
The President, upon completion of his term of office, shall be a lifetime member of the Senate.

Chapter 20. Cabinet of Ministers

Article 98.
The executive  authority shall be exercised by the Cabinet of  Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Cabinet of  Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be composed of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan, his deputies, ministers, chairmen of state committees.The  Head of the government of the Republic of Karakalpakstan shall be a member of the  Cabinet of Ministers.
The composition of the Cabinet of Ministers shall be formed by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The nominee of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be considered and approved by the chambers of the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Members of the Cabinet of Ministers shall be approved by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan upon the nomination of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Cabinet of Ministers shall provide the direction of the effective functioning for the economic, social and spiritual spheres, the implemen­tation of laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decisions of the Oliy Majlis, decrees, resolutions and ordinances of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Cabinet of Ministers in accordance with the current legislation shall issue resolutions and ordinances binding on all bodies, enterprises, institutions, organizations, officials and citizens on the entire territory of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall organize and   direct the activity of the Cabinet of  Ministers being responsible for efficiency of his work, preside at sittings of the Cabinet of Ministers, sign its decisions, upon the nomination of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan represent  the Cabinet  of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan in  international relations, exercise other functions  stipulated by  laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decrees,  resolutions and ordinances of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall have the right to preside at sittings of the Cabinet of Ministers, adopt decisions on matters relating to the competence of the Cabinet of Ministers, as well as to abolish resolutions and ordinances of the Cabinet of Ministers, ordinances of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Uzbekistan proceeding from article 89 and article 93 of the present Constitution.
The Cabinet of Ministers, in its work, shall be responsible before the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Oliy Majlis of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
The Cabinet of Ministers shall tender its resignation to the newly-elected Oliy Majlis.
The procedure for the organization of the work and competence of the Cabinet of Ministers shall be defined by law.

Chapter 21. Fundamental Principles of Local Bodies of State Authority

Article 99.
The Kenghashes of people’s deputies, led by khokims, are the representative bodies of authority in regions, districts, cities and towns (except towns subordinate to district centres, as well as city districts). They shall act upon matters within their competence in accordance with the interests of the state and citizens.

Article 100.
The joint conducting of the local bodies of authority shall include:
ensurance of legality, legal order and security of citizens;
matters of economic, social and cultural development within their territories;
formation and implementation of the local budget, determination of the local taxes and fees, formation of non-budget funds;
direction of the municipal economy;
protection of the environment;
ensurance of the registration of civil status acts;
adoption of normative acts and exercising of other powers which are not contrary to the Constitution and legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 101.
The local bodies of authority shall enforce laws of the Republic of Uzbekistan, decrees of the President, decisions of the higner bodies of state authority, participate in the discussion of matters of national and local significance.
The decisions of the higner bodies, adopted within their competence, shall be binding on the subordinate bodies.
The term of office of the Kenghashes of people’s deputies and khokims is five years.

Article 102.
The khokim of region, district, city and town shall serve as the head of the representative and executive authorities of his relevant territory.
The khokim of region and the city of Tashkent shall be appointed and relieved of his post by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan and approved by the relevant Kenghash of people’s deputies.
The khokims of districts, cities and towns shall be appointed and relieved of their posts by the khokim of the relevant region and approved by the relevant Kenghash of  people’s deputies. The khokims of city districts shall be appointed and relieved of their posts by the khokim of the relevant city and approved by the city Kenghash  of people’s deputies.
The khokims of towns subordinate to district centres shall be appointed and relieved of their posts by the khokim of the district and appropved by the district Kenghash of people’s deputies.

Article 103.
The khokim of region, district, city and town shall exercise his powers in accordance with the principle of one-man management and shall bear personal responsibility for decisions and actions of bodies directed by him.
The organization of the work and powers of khokims and local Kenghashes of people’s deputies, as well as the procedure for the elections to the local Kenghashes  of people’s deputies, shall be regulated by law.

Article 104.
The khokim within his vested powers shall adopt decisions   which are binding on all enterprises, institutions, organizations, associations, as well as officials and citizens on the relevant territory.

Article 105.
Self-governing bodies in settlements, kishlaks and auls, as well as in makhallas of cities, towns, settlements, kishlaks and auls, shall be assemblies of citizens  electing Chairman (aksakal) and his advisers for the term of two and a half years.
The procedure for the elections, organization of the work and powers of self-governing bodies shall be regulated by law.

Chapter 22. Judicial Authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Article 106.
The judicial authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall function independently from the legislative and executive authorities, political parties, other public associations.

Article 107.
The judicial system in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall consist of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Supreme Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the Higher Economic Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the supreme courts of the Republic of Karakalpakstan on civil and criminal cases, the Economic Court of the Republic of Karakalpakstan elected for the term of five years, regional and Tashkent city courts on civil and criminal cases, interdistrict, district and city courts on civil and criminal cases, martial and economic courts for the same term.
The organization and procedure for the operation of courts shall be specified by law.
The formation of extraordinary courts shall be inadmissible.

Article 108.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Uzbekistan shall hear cases relating to the constitutionality of acts of the legislative and executive authori




























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