Today Uzbekistan is a large scientific center in Central Asia, which has developed exploratory material base, extensive scientific foundation, qualified scientific personnel, whose works have found a confession all over the world.
Research complex of the republic comprises of 362 institutions of academic, university and economic profile, including:
101 scientific - research institutes,
55 scientific research subdivisions of the educational institutions,
65 project-design organizations,
32 research-and-production associations and experimental enterprises,
30 information-computing centers.
Kernel of scientific potential is an Academy of sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan - leading scientific and experimental center in the region, which has a history of more than half a century. In its structure are created and successfully conducting studies such unique scientific centers, as:
Institute of nucleus physics,
Research-and-production association "Physics-Sun",
Research-and-production association "Botanika",
Complex of high mountain astronomical observatories on the mountain Maydanak
Near 46 thousand people are occupied in scientific sphere, including 2,8 thousand doctors and approximately 16,1 thousand candidates of sciences. For the first time created high attestation commission of the Republic of Uzbekistan, which is meant to prepare young scientific personnel. Preparation of scientific personnel of high qualifications is carried out in 20 areas of science.
At present, scientists of the republic conduct fundamental and applied studies on many directions of modern science.
Scientific schools of world class are working in the republic and successfully conducting studies on following directions: studies in the field of mathematics, theory of chances, mathematical modeling of natural and public processes, informatics and computer technology.
Republic formed its own astronomical school, established in the times of Biruni, Ulugbek and Giyasitdin Jamshed. As far back as in the ancient times works of Uzbek scientists on astronomy, studied a motion celestial luminary have got worldwide admission. They were the first who designed the most exact map of the stars. Supporting astronomical network to study climatologic edges is created in the republic. Uzbek scientists with the scientists and specialists of USA, Italy and Japan, working at Kitab international width stations named after Ulugbek, built in 1930s, actively participate in nternational researches on studying motion of the poles of the Earth.
The studies connected with studying the regularities of geological processes, causing formation of mineral and raw material resources available for industrial use, as well as in the field of tectonics, geophysics, seismology and other scopes of sciences about Earth are carried out by local scientists.
The works of the geologists of the republic in the field of complex geological-geophysical and geochemical study of a terrestrial cortex, ore formation in metal genetics and oil formation promoted a creation in Uzbekistan powerful mineral - raw material base. Scientists - geologists directly participated in the opening, studying and mastering many most largest deposits of useful fossils on the territory of the republic and the whole Central Asian region.
Studies in the field of molecular geneticists, genetic engineering and biotechnologies, show necessary base of ensuring a research progress in agriculture, microbiological industry, surround ambience protection.
Scientific schools in the field of organic and inorganic chemistry, chemistries of vegetable materials, biology and geneticists, on creating biotechnologies are formed and developed in the republic. They designed a theoretical base and technology for production of new types of high efficient ecological clean fertilizers, small-toxic defoliates, new medicine, facilitators for growing plants and their protection amenities.
Researches connected with studying a complex of physical-chemical characteristics of materials.
Fundamental studies on the physics of kernel and elementary particles, radiation physics and materials have got specifically broad development in the republic. Formed new scientific direction - relativist nucleus physics. It serves a theoretical base for studies in the field of nucleus energy and applied nucleus physics.
Actively conducted works on producing nontraditional types of energy - complex and efficient transformation and mastering sun energy, which has a big significance in solving problems of electrical independence of the country.
Studies on world and domestic history, cultural and spiritual heritage, historical and modern development of Uzbek language, literature and Uzbekistan folklore are also taking place.
In the development of savvy potential of republic, expansion international scientific-cultural relationships scientists of common sciences, and first of all historians, archeologists, ethnographers, linguists have added significant contribution. Works connected with studying ethno genesis and reconstructing objective history of Uzbek folk, studying its traditions, ways of life and cultures are in exclusive interest.
Uzbekistan ratified and is thereby attached to the Rio Declaration, to UNO Frame Convention on change of climate, to UNO Convention on the biological variety, to UNO Convention on the fight against deserting, to the Vienna Convention on the protection ozone stratum, to Basel Convention on checking for transborder transportation of dangerous waste and their litter, to the Convention on forbidding military or any other hostile draft on means of influences to the natural ambience. Besides, Uzbekistan signed 12 international agreements on the cooperation in the field of surround ambience protection.
Uzbekistan participates with the Council of the Land in work on projection Charter of the Land. At the beginning of 1999 National project of Charter is sent in the Secretary of Council of the Land.
On the initiatives of the Government of Uzbekistan Concept on solving problems of Aral Sea and Program on concrete actions for perfecting ecological situation in the pool of Aral Sea is designed, which were accepted by the Heads of Central Asian states in 1994. These Decisions laid in the basis of work of the International conference on the firm development of Aral Sea pool, organized by UNO in Nukus (September 1995.). On conferences is accepted Nukus Declaration, which, having confirmed devotion to the accepted international conventions on observance of cardinal principles Rio, has defined a strategy and main measures on the firm development at the level of Central Asian states.
National plan of actions on the surround ambience protection, National strategy and plan of actions on the conservation of biovariety in the Republic of Uzbekistan, National program on stopping use of ozone destroying materials, Program of measures in regarding changes of climate, on fight against deserting landscapes, National plan of actions on the hygiene of surround ambience, Transborder project on the conservation of biovariety of West Tien-Shan on the territory of Kazakhstan, Kyrgizstan and Uzbekistan were designed. Works on creation and development of National parks and reservations is taking place.
Realization of priority directions for the development of science and technology will be accomplished through financing from the state budget for research programs.
For the research policy Government will support most important priorities within the framework of:
- inter industry activities on creation, mastering and spreading technologies and know-how, leading to principal changes in the technological base and reducing severe influences to the surrounding ambience;
- works on large, inter industry research projects, requiring immense concentrations of resources, hard to realize for the individual customers;
- scientific-technical support for the actions, realizing social purposes of society (through the development of public healthcare and education, culture, ambience protection of corresponding infrastructure);
- studies connected with forming a democratic state with the strong social warranties, undertaking the economic reforms, entering of Uzbekistan to the world economic community and solve problems on becoming full-fledged market economy;
- works connected with the conservation and development of the genetic base of vegetables and bestial world; using museum, carrying out research work, as well as using national foundations of scientific-technical information for these purposes.