The Surkhan-Darya region was founded on March, 6th 1941. The Region is situated in the southern part of the Republic Uzbekistan, in Surhan-Sherobad to a valley. Bordered in Amu Darya in south of the river with Afghanistan, in the north-east with the Republic of Tajikistan, in the south-west with Turkmenistan, in the north-west -with the Kashkadariya region.
The territory of the region consists 20,1 thousand square kilometers. The population is more than 2,1 million persons. The region consists of 13 administrative areas, 8 cities, with an administrative center - the city of Termez.
Region's climate sub continental with warm winter and hot, dry long summer when the temperature often reaches in the afternoon 44-46 degrees.
High summer temperatures in frost-free period under irrigation conditions promote maturing here hemophilic subtropical cultures of a fine-fibered cotton, east persimmon and even a sugar cane.
Economic Development ofSurkhandarya Region
Following the results of 2011 BPF! the Surkhan-Darya area has made 2911,7 billion or 110,9 % to a record the year 2010. In structure VRP prevails the agriculture (38,9 %), which main branches are cotton growing, sericulture, gardening, grain growing, transport and communication 12,9 %, trade and catering 9,7 %, building 8,2 %, the industry 8,1 %, taxes 4,3 % and others 17,9 %.
2011th year for the region has been collected over 614,0 thousand tons of grain and 348,9 thousand tons of a clap-raw. Also it has been made 1,5 thousand tons of cocoons, 82,9 thousand tons melon fields, 95,1 thousand tons of grapes and 590,1 thousand tons of fruit-and-vegetable production, including 101,5 thousand tons of fruit, 343,5 thousand tons of vegetables and 145,1 thousand tons of a potato.
And also, In 2011, the region produced 120 thousand tons of meat, 567,6 thousand tons of milk, 171,7 million of eggs.
Taking into consideration a considerable role of agro industrial sector in regional economy, a perspective direction is the organization of joint manufactures with foreign partners in processing of agricultural production.
Foreign Economic Activity
According to statistical facts, the foreign trade turnover of the region up to 2011th year is 287,2 million dollars of the USA, export has made the sum at a rate of 203,8 million dollars of the USA, and import - 83,5 million dollars of the USA. The high positive balance (120,3 mln. dollars of the USA) managed to achieve basically at the expense of increase in export of a clap fiber, and also growth of export of a foodstuff, agricultural products and services.
The cotton-fiber - 107,9 million dollars of the USA that makes 52,9 % from the general indicator of export of area, and also a foodstuff 65 million dollars of the USA was basic articles of export as it was already mentioned, made 31,9 % And energy of 6,7 million US dollar that makes 3,3 % of all export of the area.
Following the results of 2011th year, in the Surkhan-Darya region was registered 51 enterprises with foreign investments. Including 27 of them are carrying out their activities in industrial sphere, 9 ֊ trade and public catering, 6 - in sphere of transport and telecommunication services, 3 - specializes in building, 2 - agriculture and 4 ֊ other.
Joint ventures of foreign trade carried out the foreign trade turnover for the sum of 23,4 million dollars of the USA. The total sum of export of the joint venture has made 21 million dollars of the USA, and import has made 2,4 million dollars of the USA.
Total exports of joint ventures for 2011 year is 10,3 % of all regional export, joint venture import occupies 2,9% of all import of the region.
Natural Resource Base of the Region
In the Surkhan-Darya region are revealed more than 300 deposits, displays and exits of more than 40 kinds of minerals. Bowels of the Surkhan-Darya region have industrial stocks of coal, oil, natural gas, salt, phosphorites, plaster, non-ferrous and precious metals, etc.
In region about 30 % inferred resources of potash salts and 25 % of fluorspar are concentrated, considerable resources of phosphorites, bentonite clay, glauconite, glass, raw materials are revealed. There are good preconditions for detection of a deposit of tungsten, mercury, precious metals, semiprecious raw materials, zeolite, sulfurs, etc. It also produces about 90% of the national production of potash salt, 10.3% ־ a brick, 5.9% ֊ 0.9% and non- metallic - expanded clay.
The basic stocks of a mineral-source of raw materials of the region are concentrated in Sherabad area (Mountain "Åòèìòîž" is located near the village of Aktash). Presented firmly cemented poorly rounded dark grey calcareous breccia's. Extent of an exit on a surface more than 1500 m, width - 450 m, depth - 50 m (according to drilling of 1972 capacity limy áðåê÷èé 30-90). Resources are estimated more than in 34 million M3. Display of plasters Àêòàø is located in 4 km to the southeast from settlement of Aktash. It is presented by four layers of plasters capacity 0,5-5,0 light grey, cryptocrystalline, saccharoidal . Extent of an exit on a surface from 500 m to 1500 m. Resources to depth of 50 m are estimated in 750 thousand ì3, a granite ֊ 1769 thousand ì3, salt êàëèåâàÿ - 69,9 million ton., limestone and cement raw materials of 122,3 million ton. And 29,5 million ton.), Sariassiyis (marble - 5000,0 thousand ì3, coal - Shargunsky is estimated 200 million ton.), Bajsunsky (coal - 9,8 million th.) areas.
Surkhan-Darya is the main waterway of area and it is formed from merge of the rivers Tupolang and Kara tag, originating in Hissar
mountains. The general extent -175 kilometers, the whole area ֊ 13,5 thousand square kilometers. There are also such small rivers as Sherabaddarya, Dashnabad, Obizarang, Sangardak, Hodzhaipak, etc. System of water reservoir area are Southern Surhan and Uchkizil. Numerous of channels includung Sherobod, Amu Zangsky, Jarkurgan, Zhang, Hazarbag, Okkapchigay, Kumkurgan.
The favorable investment climate is created and reliable guarantees are given to foreign investors. Today at the expense of extensive system of tax privileges and preferences for investors the climate even more attractive, than for the national producers.
The favorable investment climate is based on a number of the accepted acts - "About guarantees and measures of protection of the rights of foreign investors», the Republic of Uzbekistan Law «About foreign investments», the Decree of the President «About additional stimulus and privileges given to the enterprises with foreign investments», «About additional measures on stimulation of export of production made by the enterprises with foreign investments» and a number of others. It is necessary to notice, that the Law «About guarantees to foreign investors» also provides protection of foreign investments within the next ten years after investment from changes in the legislation, worsening investment conditions.
With a view of the further improvement of an investment climate in the country, wide attraction of private direct foreign investments for realization of programs of privatization, modernization and reconstruction of manufacture, creation of new workplaces in republic regions, and maintenance of a reliable legal protection and guarantees for foreign investors the President of Republic Uzbekistan has been accepted on April, 11th, 2005 the Decree «About additional measures on stimulation of attraction of direct private foreign investments».
According to the Decree, since July, 1st, 2005 foreign investors, in addition to operating privileges and ïðåôåðåíöèÿì,
are released from payment of taxes, including the tax to the income, the tax to property, the uniform tax for micro firms and small enterprises, the tax to developments of a social infrastructure, the tax in road fund and the ecological tax.
According to the Decree side benefits and guarantees are given to foreign investors:
- Percent on the long-term credits involved with the enterprises with foreign investments without a guarantee of Republic Uzbekistan, do not join in taxable base at calculation of the tax to the income (profit);
- Losses from the primary activity, arising at again created enterprises with foreign investments, are transferred for the term up to 5 years by equal shares for repayment at the expense of the taxable income to the years following the accounting period in which the loss has been received;
- At deterioration of conditions of investment by the subsequent legislation given with point 1 of the present Decree of a privilege operate during all term on which they are given.
Investment Design Offers on Cooperation
Priority directions of the further development of area are creation new and modernization of the operating enterprises by attraction of foreign investments.
In the Surkhan-Darya area it is developed more 30 investment offers with a view of attraction of foreign investments.
In particular, investment offers of the organization of co- production on such spheres as
Textile manufacture (manufacture of a yarn, a cloth, knitted products etc.), is offered 11 projects for the sum 74,4 million dollars in Sariasinsky, Shurchi, Denau, Muzrabat and Zharkurgan areas,
Including the project for the sum 8,8 million dollars in Shurchi area the organization of manufacture of a yarn on the basis of a farm "UJepMyxaMMaA6o6o״ where there is unfinished building for spinning and weaving factory.
Manufacture of building materials (cement, plaster, gypsum plasterboard, limestone, a granite and ä.ð.) 5 projects for the sum more than 300 million dollars.
To processing and storages of fruit-and-vegetable production 5 projects for a total sum of 6 million dollars in Sariasiya, Denau, Oltinsay, Termez, Kizirik areas
The organization of manufacture of 70 thousand tons iodized food and technical salt on the basis of joint-stock company «Khujaikon the AS» in Sherabad area for the sum 6,7 million dollars.
In the chemical industry the project on manufacture êàóñòè÷åñêîé soda for the sum of 25 million dollars of Sherabad area capacity of 20 thousand ton in a year
Mechanical engineering and repair the project for the 10 million sum dollars manufacture of electro technical production for the sum 15 million dollars. In the city of Termez production of porcelain in the area of Sherabad project worth 500 thousand dollars, 3 projects for the production of furniture in Termez, Denau, Shurchin districts in the amount of $ 3 million.
TERMEZ AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE
HISTORY OF CENTRAL ASIA
Termez takes place among those cities of Central Asia which genesis and evolution occurred in several places, whose cultural layers, reflecting all the phases of their existence, were accumulated one after another, showing the unbroken sweep of the epochs.
So it was that Old Termez functioned in an era of peace from its first appearance up to the damage done by Genghis-Khan in 1220.
After this catastrophe a new city was born from the fire and ashes like a fairytale phoenix to the east of the old town in the valley of the Surkhandarya. An ambassador sent to Amir Temur by Castilian King Henry III gave the best description of this town. His naTe was Rue Gonzales de Klaviho. He wrote, "entering the city, we were going so long crossing squares and crowded streets that we came home tired and angry."
A new location was established in the XIX century; Termez had been growing to the south of the late medieval location, closer to the Amudarya.
Thus, Termez should be considered as a large aggregate, the compound parts of which extended in the space and in time on a vast territory surrounding the Amudarya, the history of which is the history of Termez itself.
Such agglomerations are typical for Central Asia cities. Such cities as Marakanda - Samarkand in Sogdiana, Marv ־ Bayram-Ali in Margiane, Binket ֊ Tashkent in Chach, Nesef ־ Karshi in Nahshab and others are examples of this phenomenon.
The reasons for such movement inside one locale are various: devastating wars, changes in the sources of water, and social and religious crises.
Termez is located in the heart of the legendary Bactria region, on the bank of the powerful Oxus, the Amudarya, the waters of which were blessed by the river god, Oakhsho. These waters have been flowing to the north for centuries in Khwarazm, no less legendary there, and blessed by Zarathustra.
On both sides of that river several millennia ago, in the Bronze Age, a great civilization was formed. It was called Bactria. Later it became a distillation of the great cultures of the East, the symbiosis of eastern and western civilizations incorporating ancient Iranian, Hellenist, Indo-Buddhist, Turkic and Arab Moslim influences. The Arabs conquered the capital of Bactria (Bactra), which had another name, Bokhlo, and then in the Middle Ages, Balkh. They named that city " Ut al-Bulad" meaning, "The Mother of Cities," as they discovered the millennium of history of the Bactrian civilization. It was an ancient capital, a mother that had given birth to other great and historic Bactrian cities. Some of them fulfilled their ancient destiny and survive to the present only in ruins, while others were able to surmount the obstacles of modernity and exist today as living, vibrant towns.
Among them is Termez, a city that history protected and is protecting now. Termez has gone through great changes throughout its history. It was restored from ruins and fire, it was moved from one place to another. In the period of Independence, it became a flourishing modern city, the main advanced post, the South Gate of Uzbekistan.
Before that there had been millennia of history. The first builders of the city, the Bactrians, were wise people who placed the city in a sparsely populated area, which was covered by the tugai plant.
First, in the location of modern Termez, there was a small settlement in V-IV c. B. C. It was discovered by archaeologists in the area of the railway station. This settlement didn't play a great role in the system of settlements in Bactria, as the main road from Bactria to the north ran 20 km. to the west of Termez . The village of Shurob was located at the main river crossing through the Oxus. To protect this crossing the ancient built, a castle, called Shortepa. This was along the road on which Alexander the Great passed on his famous march to Sogdiana and its capital Marakanda. Here on the place of Kampirtepa he founded Alexandria Oxiana, which was sought by several generations of historians. Now, with the discovery of a powerful system of defending walls and gates dating back to the end of IV-III c. B.C. on Kampirtepa, the arguments can stop.
Later, during the reign of Demetrius (200 - 185 B. C.) of Greek-Bactria, a new development of the settlement took place at Old Termez , especially in its citadel. The fact that Demetrius conquered northwest India and probably ruled over Sogdiana as well hastened the development of the area, as Termez was located on the most logical road between the two territories. By means of this highway, Demetrius joined the two sides of his kingdom, Gandhara and Sogdiana. And the main intermediate place between these was TeyTer and the river crossing through the Oxus nearby. The next Greek-Bactrian rulers, Agathocles, Evcrtatides, and Heliokles, lost Sogdiana but held on to Bactria and Gandhara. They continued to pay much attention to Termez, as the main road connecting India and Central Asia ran through it.
Thus, from the early period of its existence, the two main functions of Termez were defined. They have guaranteed its importance and prosperity. They were the protection of the very important Oxus River crossing and the servicing of caravans.
The military and defensive functions of Terrez insured its importance in the middle ages. It was acastle that protected the northern and southern boundaries of various states.
Likewise, this function of Termez is very important today. This city is the main advanced post of Uzbekistan on its southern border.
The Yuehchi-Tohari created the great Empire of the Kushanids. This empire was in the same class with China, Rome and Parthia in its military power. The Kushanids realized the importance of Termez. Termez and neighbouring Kampirtepa controlled not only the roads running to the north, but also the most important trade road running from India along the valley of the Oxus, the Amudarya,to Margiana and Parthia. From there travelers passed over the Caspian Sea to Riona (the modern Georgian city ־ Poti) and crossed the Black Sea to Rome. Roman historian Pliniy wrote about this road, on which people carried important goods. He wrote of it in 127 - 116 B.C. quoting Varron, Strabo and other ancient scholars who had written about it. Parthian rulers realized the importance and benefits of this road.
They conquered Kampirtepa in 51 - 37 B.C., in the period of Orod irs reign. They made it the advanced post of Parthia in the east, in the valley of Oxus.
In the reign of the 2nd Kushan ruler, Vima ToHo (Soter Megas), in the 2nd half of the first century A.D., the Yuehchi-Tohars recaptured Termez. Under the great Kushan ruler, Kanishka (the first half of the 2nd c. A.D.), Termez gained an additional function ־ a philosophical one. For several centuries it served as the main centre of Buddhism in Central Asia. Missionaries travelled from Termez through the iron gates to Sogdiana on the northwest along the valley of Oxus to Margiana and to the northeast through the Pamir and Alay mountains to Serindia (Eastern Turkestan). They carried the doctrine of the Buddha there and into China and Tibet as well.
Historical documents contain the names of Toharists professing Buddhism in China, including the names of people who translated Buddhist works from Sanskrit into Chinese. Also included were the names of people who built Buddhist monasteries in Chinese cities and made disciples from among the local people.
One such monk was the Buddhist Upasaka Chgi Tsang (the first half of the 3rd c. A.D.), who was from Bactria-Tokharistan. He preached in the capital of China, Loyan, and in the city of Nankin.
Chinese written sources inform us that "he had a weak body but he had the great power of knowledge." In the period from 222 to 253 he translated 49 Buddhist collections into Chinese in a fine literary style.
Another outstanding Buddhist monk was Tohar Dharmarakhsha who lived in a suburb of the Chinese capital, Chanyan, from 284 to 313 A.D. He translated more than 100 Buddhist collections into Chinese and he founded a monastery where several thousands of monks were trained. Dharmarakhsha had a unique memory and knew 36 languages. A Chinese source records that this unique man "had reached the state of nirvana."
Born in Termez, Buddhist monk Dharmamitra played an outstanding role in spreading Buddhism in Tibet. He translated and wrote commentaries to Buddha' s collections in Chinese. The accounts of the activities and influence of these monks demonstrate that Termez boasted a productive and intellectual atmosphere in the early centuries. This was also shown when the outstanding personality Muhammad A1 Hakim at-Termizi appeared. He is greatly respected in the Moslim world. He was not only a Moslim mullah, but also a distinguished scholar - theologian. His works influenced the development of sufism, in the fabric of which are some doctrines of Buddhism. It is probaby that Hakim at-Termizi knew the works of the Toharist Buddhists monks, which were written in Sanskrit and in Bactrian. These languages existed up to X-XI A.D., though the Arab language was widely spread by then.
Termez maintained its important ideological function into the Middle Ages. When Khwarazmshah Muhammad decided to liberate himself from the spiritual influence of the Arab khalif, an־Nasir li-Din Allah, he chose his own khalif from among the Termer sayyids. Amir Temur, the great statesman, also respected and recognized these holy ones.
One of the outstanding representatives of Termez sayyids, Abu-al-Maali, served Islam for many years in the family patrimony of Amir Temur in Shahrisabz. He was buried in Gumbasi Sayyidon near Amir Temur's father and their teacher Shaih Kulae.
In the years of independence, Termez, in spite of the changes of this historic period, has kept its traditional importance and functions; moreover, it has gained new importance, entering a new stage of its development. Termez became a centre of developing industry, a centre of education and culture and the advanced post of Uzbekistan in the south. Without a doubt, it is in a combination of the traditions of its history and the new phenomena of its modern period in which the importance of its future lies.